The research roundup provides an overview of the past week’s research from Mayo Clinic Laboratories consultants, including featured abstracts and a complete list of published studies and reviews.
The Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial (ONTT), a landmark study completed in 1991, stratified the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) in patients with optic neuritis. Since that time, unique biomarkers for optic neuritis have been found. The antibody against aquaporin-4, (AQP4)-immunoglobulin G (IgG), discovered in 2004, was found to be both the pathologic cause and a reliable biomarker for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). This finding enabled an expanded definition of the phenotype of NMOSD and improved treatment of the disease. Subsequently, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) IgG was recognized to be a marker for MOG-IgG-associated disorder (MOGAD), a central demyelinating disease characterized by recurrent optic neuritis, prominent disc edema, and perineural optic nerve enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging. Most MS disease-modifying agents are ineffective for AQP4-IgG-positive NMOSD and MOGAD. Because there are crucial differences in treatment and prognosis between MS, AQP4-IgG-positive NMOSD, and MOGAD, ophthalmologists should be aware of these new biomarkers of optic neuritis and incorporate their testing in all patients with atypical optic neuritis. Via Survey of Ophthamology.