Precise, personalized therapy    

An individualized approach to drug selection

Precision therapeutics, or the use of pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing in conjunction with therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), is a rapidly evolving field with the potential to revolutionize medication selection and monitoring for individuals who take prescription medications. From managing mood disorders to evaluating for treatment-related toxicity, incorporating PGx into clinical practice can identify genetic variation associated with adverse drug reactions.

Because research studies show a significant percentage of patients possess genetic variants that impact therapeutic response, establishing patients' genetic profiles allows physicians to select medications for patients that optimize therapeutic efficacy while avoiding harmful drug reactions.

Test menu

Mood disorders

By the numbers


of individuals carry clinically actionable variants affecting medication absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion1


of the variability in treatment response for major depressive disorder is due to genetic variation2

Expert-backed, patient-focused testing

Mayo Clinic Laboratories’ testing is developed and validated in partnership with the Molecular Technologies Laboratory, Clinical Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Center for Individualized Medicine (CIM), and the Schulze Center for Novel Therapeutics at Mayo Clinic. Developed in accordance with practice guidelines established by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) for the use of PGx testing in clinical care, our PGx evaluations provide superior analytical and clinical quality, enabling targeted detection of more clinically actionable alleles, including variants found in populations with diverse ancestry,3 compared to other testing. In addition, our testing offers:

  • Excellence in analytical and clinical quality: Tests include only actionable genes with a high level of clinical evidence. We include more alleles per gene (up to two times as many) as our competitors. Our tests are designed to include clinically significant variants across diverse populations to ensure testing appropriateness for patients around the world.
  • End-to-end testing: Access to both PGx testing and TDM testing for a comprehensive list of antidepressants in one laboratory.
  • Interpretive support: We offer consultations with Mayo Clinic physicians, laboratory directors, PGx pharmacists, genetic counselors, and other toxicology experts to help guide test ordering and interpretation. In addition, our reports include medication recommendations categorized by drug class and reference sources of information to ensure easy interpretation.
  • Unparalleled breadth of vision: We support our PGx clients throughout their PGx journey through access to Mayo Clinic’s PGx certificate program, interpretative support, and clinical decision support.

Therapeutic areas impacted by PGx

  • Analgesic/Anesthesiology
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet
  • Cardiovascular
  • Gastroenterology
  • Immunosuppressive
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Neurology

Increase your PGx IQ

Understanding the myriad implications PGx testing has on patient treatment outcomes is integral to harnessing the full power of this emerging field. To educate providers about current and future PGx applications, Mayo Clinic offers a one-of-a-kind, online certificate course that guides attendees through foundational pharmacogenomics concepts and advanced decision-making. Engaging lectures, expert panels, case-based presentations, and patient role-play activities educate attendees on pharmacogenomics fundamentals, test interpretation, and tips on implementing pharmacogenomics into their practice.

The right medication for the right patient at the right dose

Indications for precision therapeutics testing may include:

  • Multiple failed therapies
  • Polypharmacy cases
  • Prescription risk for hypersensitivity reactions
  • Family history of medication intolerance
  • Symptoms suggestive of drug metabolism concern
  • Severe diseases
  • Elderly and pediatric patients who have difficulty communicating adverse drug reactions

A range of testing options

PGx testing can help guide the selection of medications for individuals with treatment-resistant depression and those with metabolic variations that impact treatment efficacy. Test results can help maximize treatment outcomes while minimizing potential drug-related toxicity from SSRI medications. Mayo Clinic Laboratories offers several TDM and PGx evaluations, including panel testing and single gene assays, to increase understanding of an individual’s genetic makeup and personalize dosing decisions.

Panel testing

PSYQP | Psychotropic Pharmacogenomics Gene Panel, Varies

  • Examines 23 genes (141 alleles) used to assess approximately 80 medications.
  • Identifies variations in genes known to be associated with response and/or risk of toxicity with psychotropic medications.

PGXQP  | Focused Pharmacogenomics Panel, Varies

  • Examines 10 genes (82 alleles) used to assess more than 85 medications.
  • Delivers preemptive or reactive genotyping of patients for pharmacogenetics purposes.
  • Provides assessments for genes with strong drug phenotype associations.

Single gene testing

2D6Q  | Cytochrome P450 2D6 Comprehensive Cascade, Varies

  • Identifies variants in the CYP2D6 gene that might interfere with drug metabolism.
  • Determines precise genotype when other testing methods are indeterminate.
  • Provides information relevant to tamoxifen, codeine, and tramadol, as well as other medications metabolized by cytochrome P450 2D6.

2C19R  | Cytochrome P450 2C19 Genotype, Varies

  • Identifies variants in the CYP2C19 gene that might interfere with drug metabolism.

Testing for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

To better understand a patient’s response to treatment, we offer several assays that evaluate for drug concentrations.

CITAL  | Citalopram, Serum

VENLA  | Venlafaxine, Serum

FLUOX  | Fluoxetine, Serum

DULOX  | Duloxetine, Serum

Focused Pharmacogenomics Panel

Ann Moyer, M.D., Ph.D., explains Mayo Clinic Laboratories’ new focused pharmacogenomics panel, a real-time, PCR-based testing approach that assesses 10 genes known for their drug-gene associations, to provide guidance on medication selection for patients across a variety of specialties.

Learn more about how to order these tests at your institution.

The Latest


  1. Wang L, Scherer SE, Bielinski SJ, et al. Implementation of preemptive DNA sequence-based pharmacogenomics testing across a large academic medical center: The Mayo-Baylor RIGHT 10K Study. Genet Med. 2022;24(5):1062-1072. doi:10.1016/j.gim.2022.01.022
  2. Tansey KE, Guipponi M, Hu X, et al. Contribution of common genetic variants to antidepressant response. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 1;73(7):679-82. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.10.030. Epub 2012 Dec 11. PMID: 23237317
  3. Lopes JL, Harris K, Karow MB, et al. Targeted Genotyping in Clinical Pharmacogenomics: What Is Missing?. J Mol Diagn. 2022;24(3):253-261. doi:10.1016/j.jmoldx.2021.11.008