Lupus anticoagulants are associated with thrombosis, recurrent fetal loss, neurological problems, and cutaneous manifestations. Accurate diagnosis is important considering the potential use of long-term anticoagulant therapy because of the high risk of recurrent thrombosis.
Waldenström macroglobulinemia is a rare disease. Patients present with a spectrum of clinical findings, and many patients do not require treatment initially. This article describes a risk-adapted approach with recommendations on timing and choice of therapy.
Many disorders of the central nervous system previously considered neurodegenerative and untreatable are now recognized as having an autoimmune cause. Detection of neural autoantibodies in serum or spinal fluid is consistent with a diagnosis of an autoimmune encephalopathy, epilepsy, or dementia.