Vector-Borne Diseases: Diagnostic Testing and Clinical Interpretation
The Right Tests For the Detection and Diagnosis
Mayo Clinic’s internationally renowned clinical microbiology laboratories span all areas of conventional, molecular, and serological medical microbiology, offering a broad selection of tests designed for rapid identification and in-depth characterization of the pathogens associated with infectious diseases.
Mayo Clinic Laboratories offers a full menu of individual tests and panels that aid in the diagnosis of vector-borne diseases (VBD). In addition to our comprehensive testing menu, we developed multiple VBD testing algorithms to help guide and optimize diagnostic testing.
Diagnostic Testing for:
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)
Borrelia miyamotoi Disease
West Nile Virus
Eastern Equine Virus
Western Equine Virus
California (La Crosse) Virus
St. Louis Encephalitis Virus
Other Vector-Borne Diseases
Parasite Identification (Arthropods)
Meet the Experts
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) occur worldwide, but historically, only certain pockets of the United States posed a risk for infection. However, the geographic range of ticks continues to expand in North America, leading to higher risks of TBD exposure for the public. As a result of increasing exposure and the rising number of potential tick-borne pathogens, it is increasingly important to recognize who to test, when to test, and what test to use for patients who present TBD symptoms
We offer a full menu of individual tests and panels that aid in the diagnosis of TBDs. In addition to our comprehensive testing menu, we have developed multiple TBD testing algorithms to help guide and optimize diagnostic testing.
Tick-Borne Testing Algorithms and Interpretations
Tick-borne pathogen confections are more widespread than commonly recognized by medical professionals and the public. Ticks can transmit multiple infectious agents through a single bite to the host. In studies reported in Clinical Microbiology reviews, coinfections appear with the greatest frequency among people with Lyme disease (LD). Approximately 4–5% of patients with LD are coinfected with either human anaplasmosis or babesiosis where LD is endemic.
Mayo Clinic, a recognized center of excellence for vector-borne diseases, offers combined expertise with consultancy, integration of serologic and molecular testing, and enhanced reports with interpretation support.
A tick-borne testing panel can assist in the detection of coinfections, even if they are not initially suspected by the provider. Such tests can evaluate patients who present with fever, myalgia, headache, nausea, and other symptoms and have a history or suspicion of tick exposure. Importantly, this testing is useful in patients presenting with more than seven days of symptoms.
|Tick-Borne Disease Antibodies Panel, Serum (Mayo ID: TICKS)|
Ehrlichia chaffeensis (HME) Antibody, IgG, Serum (Mayo ID: EHRC)
Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis) Antibody, Serum (Mayo ID: ANAP)
Babesia microti IgG Antibodies, Serum (Mayo ID: BABG)
Lyme Disease Serology, Serum (Mayo ID: LYME)
Reflex Test (If Indicated)
Lyme Disease Antibody, Immunoblot, Serum (Mayo ID: LYWB)
While two-tiered serological testing best identifies Lyme disease caused by B. burgdorferi, molecular amplification assays are the best detectors for acute ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and B. miyamotoi infections within the first 7 days following symptom onset. This tick-borne panel offers sensitive, specific, and rapid detection of agents that cause these four diseases. Consider ordering this panel when systemic symptoms, such as fever, chills, and sepsis, are present.
|Tick-Borne Panel, Molecular Detection, PCR, Blood (Mayo ID: TKPNL)|
Babesia Species, Molecular Detection, PCR, Blood (Mayo ID: LBAB)
Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, Molecular Detection, PCR, Blood (Mayo ID: EHRL)
Borrelia miyamotoi Detection, PCR, Blood (Mayo ID: BMIYB)
Additional Resources for Tick-Borne Diseases
Worldwide, mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) cause millions of deaths each year, earning mosquitoes the title of the world's deadliest animal.
We offer a comprehensive menu of individually orderable tests and panels for MBDs. Additionally, our algorithmic approaches to MBD testing help reduce costs and optimize patient care.
Mosquito-Borne Testing Algorithms and Interpretations
|Chikungunya IgM and IgG, Antibody, Serum (Mayo ID: CHIKV)|
Chikungunya Virus, PCR, Molecular Detection, Serum (Mayo ID: CHIKS)
Chikungunya Virus, PCR, Molecular Detection, Spinal Fluid (Mayo ID: CHIKC)
Additional Resources for Mosquito-Borne Diseases
Our laboratories test for various diseases carried by insect species. The tsetse fly spreads sleeping sickness, which affects 36 countries of sub-Saharan Africa and places 55 million people at risk. Sand flies spread the leishmaniasis group of diseases, which affects 88 countries and places 350 million people at risk. Household bugs spread Chagas disease and place 100 million people at risk in Latin America. Other insects spread filarial diseases, including lymphatic filariasis, loiasis, and onchocerciasis.
Insect-Borne Testing Interpretations
|Leishmaniasis (Visceral) Antibody, Serum (Mayo ID: LEIS)|
NOTE: Test is NOT appropriate for diagnosing cutaneous leishmaniasis.
|Parasite Identification (Arthropods)|
|Parasite Identification, Varies (Mayo ID: PARID)|
NOTE: Tick identification can be used to guide prophylaxis for Lyme disease and predict the risk for other tick-borne diseases. The report includes tick genus, species, gender, life cycle stage, degree of engorgement, and presence—or absence—of mouthparts.
|Trypanosoma Cruzi Infection (Chagas Disease)|
|Trypanosoma cruzi Antibody, IgG, Serum (Mayo ID: CHAG)|
NOTE: Test is preferred for diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease.
Additional Resources for Insect-Borne Diseases
Community Resources for Vector-Borne Diseases
Read more about vector-borne diseases on Mayo Clinic Laboratories’ Insights.
To speak with a clinical specialty representative and learn more about how our testing can integrate with your practice, call 855-516-8404 or 1-855-379-3115 (International).